Micro Miniature Refrigerators

For Atomic Force Microscopy


MMR's AFM cold stages are designed to facilitate temperature-correlated studies using atomic force microscopes, to understand how sample characteristics and morphology vary with temperature. For AFM work, the variable-temperature stage must be extremely low in vibration and must provide high levels of temperature control and stability, and MMR refrigerators are designed to provide these critical qualities. Testing has shown vibration amplitudes to be less than 2.4 angstroms.


With simple modifications, MMR's variable-temperature stages may be mounted into many different atomic force microscopes, including systems from Pacific Nanotechnology and the Veeco Metrology Group (Explorer, Enviroscope, Multimode). The photo below shows an MMR refrigerator in use on a Pacific Nanotechnology AFM system.


In addition to the refrigerator and vacuum chamber, a temperature controller is needed, either manual or programmable; a source of dry nitrogen or argon; a filter dryer; and vacuum pump capable of maintaining a vacuum <5 mTorr in the chamber. Other accessories that add to the convenience of operating the system are available from MMR.



  • Operating Temperature Ranges:
-10° C to +125° C
-10° C to +300° C
-10° C to +450° C
Room Temperature to +450° C


  • Operating Environment: Ambient Temperature, Ambient Pressure
  • Operating Gases: Nitrogen or Argon at 1800 psi
  • Temperature Setting Accuracy: ± 0.5°C with K2000 Digital Controller
  • Temperature Stability below 125° C: ± 0.5° C
  • Temperature Stability above 125° C: ± 2° C
  • Cold Pad Size: 1cm x 1.4cm